by AdminSoa
June 20, 2014
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History Of Kenya

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Even before the colonizers, the territory of Tanzania was inhabited. Scientists and anthropologists are unanimous in the claim that these lands were the site where human evolution started. In the present day Tanzania, there is still an important archeological site called Olduvai Gorge, where a 1.75 million year old human skull was found.
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Olduvai Gorge or Oldupai Gorge is one of the most important paleoanthropological sites in the world and has been instrumental in furthering the understanding of early human evolution.
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First Explorations of Tanzania

The first connections of the coastal lands of Tanzania with the old world were initiated by the traders of the Ancient Greece, Phoenicia and the Roman Empire. Later, there came the Arab traders from the Arab Peninsula and Persia. In the Shirazi Era, the trade with gold, ivory and other goods flourished mostly in the city-states ruled by various sultans. Later on, the trading routes expanded throughout the inland and westward to Lake Tanganyika.
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European Explorations and Slavery

The first European settlers on the territory were Christian missionaries. By that time, the relations between the Arab costal trade centers and indigenous African settlements were good. But when the Portuguese reached the shores of East Africa, the slave trade began. In the 18th century, the Portuguese lost their colonizing powers. They were followed by the French, who continued the slave trading trend. Many of the explorers led several different expeditions to Africa, which also included the land of Tanzania.
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Sir Richard Burton and John Hanning Speke

Sir Richard Burton, a member of the British Indian Army, who mastered 40 different languages and dialects, and John Hanning Speke, a zoologist and a hunting explorer on the Asian continent, gathered in the search of a mysterious lake in Africa. They failed to reach their goal because they got ill and had to return to Zanzibar in order to get strength again and organize a carefully planned expedition. They followed Arab traders, who would supposedly lead them to a place called Ujiji. Through months of illness and other inconveniences, such as lack of water and robbery attacks, they finally reached Ujiji, in the present day known as Lake Tanganyika.
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David Livingstone

With a degree in medicine in his hands, David Livingston, a Scottish explorer, came to Africa as a missionary in 1841. He was best known for his research of three lakes in Tanzania, but his work included more noble deeds and personal missions.

He wanted to get to know the local people, their language and culture and decided to live away from other white people in order to adapt as quickly as possible. One of his wishes was also to put an end to slavery. He was trying to open a legal trade route that would connect the coast with the inland and hopefully stop the slave trade. In 1866, David Livingston embarked on his last exploring journey to Lake Nyasa.

However, the explorations of Africa have not stopped with him, but have since continued with other missionaries and explorers.
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German Evasion and the Maji Maji Rebellion

During the last decades of the 19th century, the Tanzanian territory was under German evasion. Apart from the unwanted dominion, the so-called German East Africa gained many positive things, such as railway connections, schools and hospitals. But even this came with strict laws and higher taxes, which resulted in the Maji Maji rebellion in 1905. To put and end to it, the Germans replaced the administration and raised more money, so that they could recreate the conditions before the rising, but starvation and famine in the region were too widely spread.

World War I, Treaty of Versailles, World War II

The Germans had to leave the land to the British government after the outbreak of World War I. The British took control over the country’s trade routes and by 1916 had power over the whole territory of Tanzania. 3 years later, Britain gained a legal mandate to manage the country with the signing of the peace treaty in Versailles. The Second World War brought another big change to the territory. In fear of another German rule, Tanganyika was trying everything to improve economic growth and accelerate development in order to depend primarily on home produce and exclude import as much as possible.
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On the Way to Independence

With the help of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), Tanganyika was gaining political independence. It was officially proclaimed Republic of Tanganyika in 1961. It was followed by the Republic of Zanzibar, established after a dispute in the government.
The presidents of the Republic of Tanganyika and the Republic of Zanzibar founded an independent Republic of Tanzania in 1961. The first president of this new country was the socialist leader Julius Kambarage Nyerere. Despite his efforts to reform the Tanzanian economy and help the majority by introducing socialism, the country's income dropped. However, he succeeded in uniting the nation and improving the relations between different religious groups and was thus a respected man.
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